POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL. Instructor: Dr. A. M. Kulkarni. Page 2. Module 1 Introduction. Lecture 1 Modern Power Systems. Page 3. Page 4. Power System Operation and Control is a comprehensive text designed for an undergraduate course in electrical engineering. Written in a simple and. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jan 1, , C. R. Balamurugan and others published Power System Operation and Control.

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CLASS NOTES ON POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL 3. F OREWORD BY THE AUTHOR Modern power system is a complex system, spread over. Lecture #2. Introduction to Power System. Operation and Control using ARISTO. Davood Babazadeh. Wollenberg, Bruce F. “Power System Operation and Control”. The Electric Power Engineering Handbook. Ed. L.L. Grigsby. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,

The power system has been expanded manifold in the recent past due to increased demand and industrial growth. The power system has also seen new emerging trend in its technology, operation and planning. The issues such as, reactive power and active power control, angle stability and voltage stability, inter-area power transfer, power quality, automatic generation and frequency control for multi-machine system, reliability evaluation, operation in competitive environment, are important factors in operation and control of the power system.

Generation, transmission, distribution, and loads make up the fundamental structure of a power system. Generators, substations, transmission circuits, transformers, circuit breakers, metering, demand, load, are the main physical devices of an electric power system.

Voltage, current, power, energy, frequency, and impedance are the fundamental terms used in power technology. Under excited operation of synchronous generator is not required.

What is known as bank of capacitors? How it is adjusted?

Power System Operation and Control

When a number of capacitors are connected in parallel to get the desired capacitance, it is known as bank of capacitors. These can be adjusted in steps by switching mechanical. What is the disadvantage of switched capacitors are employed for compensation?

When switched capacitors are employed for compensation, these should be disconnected immediately under light load conditions to avoid excessive voltage rise and Ferro resonance in presence of transformers. What are the effects of capacitor in series compensation circuit?

The effects of capacitor in series compensation circuit are, Voltage drop in the line reduces. Prevents voltage collapse. Steady state power transfer increases.

Transient stability limit increases. Give two kinds of capacitors used in shunt compensator? The two kinds of capacitors used in shunt compensator are, a. Static Var Compensator SVC : These are banks of capacitors sometimes inductors also for use under light load conditions. What is synchronous condenser? It is a synchronous motor running at no-load and having excitation adjustable over a wide range.


These comprise capacitor bank fixed or switched or fixed capacitor bank and switched reactor bank in parallel. These compensators draw reactive power from the line thereby regulating voltage, improve stability steady state and dynamic , control overvoltage and reduce voltage and current unbalances.

In HVDC application these compensators provide the required reactive power and damp out sub harmonic oscillations.

Static VAR compensators use switching for var control. These are also called static VAR switches or systems. And we will use these interchangeably. Give some of the Static compensators schemes.

Saturated reactor b. Thyristor Switched capacitor TSC d. What is tap changing transformers? It is called tap changing transformers. Write the types of tape changing transformers. Off- load tap changing transformers. Tap changing under load transformers. What is the use of off-load tap changer and TCUL?

The off- load tap changers are used when it is expected that the ratio will need to be changed only infrequently, because of load growth or some seasonal change. TCUL is used when changes in ratio may be frequent or when it is undesirably to de-energize the transformer to change the tap.

U IT-IV 1. Define economic dispatch problem? The objective of economic dispatch problem is to minimize the operating cost of active power generation.

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Define incremental cost? The rate of change of fuel cost with active power generation is called incremental cost. Write the load balance equation? Define base point?


The present operating point of the system is called base point. Define participation factor?

The change in generation required to meet power demand is called as participation factor. Define hydrothermal scheduling problem? The objective is to minimize the thermal generation cost with the constraints of water availability.

Define Uncommitment? Commitment of minmum generator to meet the required demand. Define spinning reserve?

It is the term describe the total amount of generation availability from all units synchronized on the system. What is meant by scheduled reserve? These include quick start diesel turbine units as well as most hydro units and pumped storage hydro units that can be brought online, synchronized and brought up to full capacity quickly.

What are the thermal unit constraint?

Minimum up time, minimum down time crew constraints. Define minimum up time? Once the unit is running, it should not be turned off immediately.

Define min. Once the unit is decommited, there is a minimum time before it can be recommended. Define crew constraints?

If a plant consist of two or more units, all the units cannot be turned on at the same time since there are not enough crew members to attend both units while starting up.

What are the two approaches to treat a thermal unit to operating temperature?

The first allow the unit boiler to cool down and then heat backup to operating temperature in time for a scheduled turn on. The second requires that sufficient energy be input to the boiler to just maintain operating temperature. What are the techniques for the solution of the unit commitment problem? Priority list method dynamic programming Lagrange relation What are the assumptions made in dynamic programming problem?

A state consists of an array of units with specified units operating and the rest of the time.

The startup cost of a unit is independent of the time it has been offline. There are no costs for shutting down the units.

Define long range hydro scheduling problem? The problem involves the long range of water availability and scheduling of reservoir water releases. For an interval of time that depends on the reservoir capacities.

What are the optimization technique for long range hydro scheduling problem? Dynamic programming composite hydraulic simulation methods statistical production cost. Define short range hydro scheduling problem? It involves the hour by hour scheduling of all generators on a system to achieve minimum production condition for the given time period. Define system blackout problem?

If any event occurs on a system that leaves it operating with limits violated, the event may be followed by a series of further actions that switch other equipment out of service. If the process of cascading failures continues, the entire system of it may completely collapse. This is referred as system blackout.

Lecture 1: Modern Power Systems. Lecture 2: Lecture 5: Generator Constraints. Lecture 6: Transmission Line constraints. Lecture 7: Stability Problems in Power Systems. Lecture 7a: Numerical Solution of Differential Equations. Lecture 8: Large disturbance Angle stability. Lecture 8a: Lecture 9: Voltage Instability. Lecture Define post contingency? The operation of power system needs proper coordination between these devices such that the fundamental variables of the system remain within desired limits.

Concluding Notes. An interval of 0. What is tap changing transformers? What is meant by external equvalencing? Define incremental cost?